Main Article Content
Nano-refrigerant is announced to become an excellent refrigerant, which often improves heat transfer efficiency in the cooling systems. Different materials can be applied to be suspended in traditional coolants in the same way as nanoparticles. In this comprehensive research, mathematical modeling was used to investigate the effect of suspended nanoparticles (Al2O3, CuO, SiO2 and ZnO) on 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, R-134a. The thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, density and specific heat capacity of the nano-refrigerant in an evaporator pipe were investigated. Compared to conventional refrigerants, the maximum increase in thermal conductivity was achieved by Al2O3/R-134a (96.23%) at a volume concentration of 0.04. At the same time, all nano-refrigerant types presented the same viscosity enhancement of(45.89%) at the same conditions. These types of complex thermophysical properties have enhanced the heat transfer tendencies in the pipe. Finally, the nano-refrigerant could be a likely working fluid generally used in the cooling unit to improve high-temperature transfer characteristics and save energy use.
J. M. Calm, “The next generation of refrigerants - Historical review, considerations, and outlook,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1123–1133, 2008.
B. O. Bolaji and Z. Huan, “Ozone depletion and global warming: Case for the use of natural refrigerant - A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 18, pp. 49–54, 2013.
F. Ghadiri and M. Rasti, “The effect of selecting proper refrigeration cycle components on optimizing energy consumption of the household refrigerators,” Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 67, no. 1–2, pp. 335–340, 2014.
D. S. Adelekan, O. S. Ohunakin, J. Gill, A. A. Atayero, C. D. Diarra, and E. A. Asuzu, “Experimental performance of a safe charge of LPG refrigerant enhanced with varying concentrations of TiO 2 nano-lubricant in a domestic refrigerator,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 2439–2448, 2019.
Z. Zhu, K. Liang, Z. Li, H. Jiang, and Z. Meng, “Thermal-economic-environmental analysis on household refrigerator using a variable displacement compressor and low-GWP refrigerants,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 123, pp. 189–197, 2021.
A. Celen, A. Çebi, M. Aktas, O. Mahian, A. S. Dalkilic, and S. Wongwises, “A review of nanorefrigerants: flow characteristics and applications,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 44, pp. 125–140, 2014.
A. Bhattad, J. Sarkar, and P. Ghosh, “Improving the performance of refrigeration systems by using nanofluids: A comprehensive review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 2017.
V. Nair, P. R. Tailor, and A. D. Parekh, “Nanorefrigerants: A comprehensive review on its past, present and future,” International Journal of Refrigeration, vol. 67. pp. 290–307, 2016.
O. A. Alawi, N. A. C. Sidik, and H. A. Mohammed, “A comprehensive review of fundamentals, preparation and applications of nanorefrigerants,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 54, pp. 81–95, 2014.
O. A. Hussein, K. Habib, M. Nasif, R. Saidur, and A. S. Muhsan, “Investigation of stability, dispersion, and thermal conductivity of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube based nanofluid,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2020, vol. 863, no. 1.
W. H. Azmi, M. Z. Sharif, T. M. Yusof, R. Mamat, and A. A. M. Redhwan, “Potential of nanorefrigerant and nanolubricant on energy saving in refrigeration system – A review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2017.
I. M. Mahbubul, R. Saidur, and M. A. Amalina, “Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3-R141b nanorefrigerant in horizontal smooth circular tube,” Procedia Eng., vol. 56, pp. 323–329, 2013.
D. S. Kumar and R. Elansezhian, “Experimental study on Al2O3-R134a nano refrigerant in refrigeration system,” Int. J. Mod. Eng. Res., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 3927–3929, 2012.
F. S. Javadi and R. Saidur, “Energetic, economic and environmental impacts of using nanorefrigerant in domestic refrigerators in Malaysia,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 73, pp. 335–339, 2013.
I. M. Mahbubul, R. Saidur, and M. A. Amalina, “Influence of particle concentration and temperature on thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al2O3/R141b nanorefrigerant,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 43, pp. 100–104, 2013.
O. A. Alawi, N. A. C. Sidik, and M. Beriache, “Applications of nanorefrigerant and nanolubricants in refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump systems: A review,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 68, pp. 91–97, 2015.
G. Ding, H. Peng, W. Jiang, and Y. Gao, “The migration characteristics of nanoparticles in the pool boiling process of nanorefrigerant and nanorefrigerant–oil mixture,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 114–123, 2009.
O. A. Alawi and N. A. C. Sidik, “Mathematical correlations on factors affecting the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanorefrigerants,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 58, pp. 125–131, 2014.
S. Bi, K. Guo, Z. Liu, and J. Wu, “Performance of a domestic refrigerator using TiO2-R600a nano-refrigerant as working fluid,” in Energy Conversion and Management, 2011, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 733–737.
N. Subramani and M. J. Prakash, “Experimental studies on a vapour compression system using nanorefrigerants,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 95–102, 2011.
R. R. Kumar, K. Sridhar, and M. Narasimha, “Heat transfer enhancement in domestic refrigerator using R600a/mineral oil/nano-Al2O3 as working fluid,” Int. J. Comput. Eng. Res., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 42–50, 2013.
O. A. Alawi and N. A. C. Sidik, “Influence of particle concentration and temperature on the thermophysical properties of CuO/R134a nanorefrigerant,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 58, pp. 79–84, 2014.
A. Kasaeian, S. M. Hosseini, M. Sheikhpour, O. Mahian, W. M. Yan, and S. Wongwises, “Applications of eco-friendly refrigerants and nanorefrigerants: A review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2018.
O. A. Alawi, N. A. C. Sidik, and A. S. Kherbeet, “Measurements and correlations of frictional pressure drop of TiO2/R123 flow boiling inside a horizontal smooth tube,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 61, pp. 42–48, 2015.
S. S. Sanukrishna, M. Murukan, and P. M. Jose, “An overview of experimental studies on nanorefrigerants: Recent research, development and applications,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 88, pp. 552–577, 2018.
H. Peng, G. Ding, W. Jiang, H. Hu, and Y. Gao, “Heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant-based nanofluid flow boiling inside a horizontal smooth tube,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1259–1270, 2009.
S. A. Fadhilah, R. S. Marhamah, and A. H. M. Izzat, “Copper Oxide Nanoparticles for Advanced Refrigerant Thermophysical Properties: Mathematical Modeling,” J. Nanoparticles, vol. 2014, pp. 1–5, 2014.
V. Velagapudi, K. R. Konijeti, and K. S. C. Aduru, “Empirical correlations to predict thermophysical and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids,” Therm. Sci., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 27–37, 2008.
R. K. Tiwari and M. K. Das, “Heat transfer augmentation in a two-sided lid-driven differentially heated square cavity utilizing nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 50, no. 9–10, pp. 2002–2018, 2007.
B. Ghasemi and S. M. Aminossadati, “Brownian motion of nanoparticles in a triangular enclosure with natural convection,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 931–940, Jun. 2010.
W. Jiang, G. Ding, H. Peng, Y. Gao, and K. Wang, “Experimental and model research on nanorefrigerant thermal conductivity,” HVAC R Res., 2009.
S. S. Sanukrishna, A. S. Vishnu, and M. Jose Prakash, “Nanorefrigerants for energy efficient refrigeration systems,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 3993–4001, 2017.
E. V. Timofeeva et al., “Thermal conductivity and particle agglomeration in alumina nanofluids: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. E - Stat. Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys., vol. 76, no. 6, 2007.
I. M. Mahbubul, R. Saidur, and M. A. Amalina, “Thermal conductivity, viscosity and density of R141b refrigerant based nanofluid,” in Procedia Engineering, 2013, vol. 56, pp. 310–315.
I. M. Mahbubul, A. Saadah, R. Saidur, M. A. Khairul, and A. Kamyar, “Thermal performance analysis of Al2O3/R-134a nanorefrigerant,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 85, pp. 1034–1040, 2015.
O. A. Alawi and N. A. C. Sidik, “The effect of temperature and particles concentration on the determination of thermo and physical properties of SWCNT-nanorefrigerant,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 67, pp. 8–13, 2015.
I. M. Mahbubul, R. Saidur, and M. A. Amalina, “Investigation of viscosity of R123-TIO2nanorefrigerant,” Int. J. Mech. Mater. Eng., 2012.