Main Article Content

Sa'ad Fahad Resan
Murtada Alrubaie
Hayder Alkhazraji
Enas Naser Mohsen
Fatima Salam Zaghair
Karar Khudair Hashem


The current study investigates the structural performance of lightweight concrete panels produced using ferrocement (wire-meshed), hybrid (wire-meshed and steel fiber), and sponge-cementitious immersed layers. These panels presented a novel approach to producing a lightweight concrete panel to be used as an alternative to the traditional Jack-arch masonry slab system. The panels were made in dimensions of 600mm length(l), 200mm width (w), and 54mm thickness (h), using locally available sponge materials and super cementitious mortar incorporated with ferrocement layers. To determine the proper thickness of a sponge layer to be used in panel manufacturing, a material characterization was performed. The obtained results from the material characterization indicated a significant reduction in the density compared with the conventional Jack-arch slab system. The sponge core thickness positively affected the developmental compressive strength. For all sponge thickness modes, the density of developed sponging concrete was within the acceptance criteria of lightweight structural concrete. The average density of developing sponge concrete was 15.6 kN/m3, and the average absorption ratio was 14.78 %, while the density of cementitious mortar was 21.96 kN/m3. As for the structural performance of the resulting lightweight concrete panel, the panel with a hybrid layer (incorporating short steel fiber with steel wire mesh) 10mm layer was the best reinforcement method compared with reinforcing with the wire mesh (ferrocement) solely. Furthermore, the findings of this study depicted that the bending moment capacity of the developed lightweight concrete panel was higher than the conventional Jack-arch masonry usually used in traditional residential housing and lower density.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Resan, S. F., Alrubaie, M., Alkhazraji , H., Mohsen, E. N., Zaghair , F. S., & Hashem, K. K. (2023). Behavior of Multilayer Ferrocement Slab Containing Treated Sponge Layer Core . Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences, 30(1), 1–11.


Maheri MR, Pourfallah S, Azarm R. Seismic Retrofitting Methods For The Jack Arch Masonry Slabs. Engineering Structures 2012;36:49-60. DOI:

Resan SaF, Dawod AO. Behavior of Customary Jack-Arch Slabs in South of Iraq. Journal of University of Babylon 2015;23(2).

Alfeehan AA, Alkerwei RH. Structural Behavior for Low Cost Roof System of Steel Frame and Thermo-Stone Blocks. Engineering and Technology Journal 2014;32(12 Part (A) Engineering).

SM SR, Ravindra R. A Study of Affordable Roofing Systems with Composite Slab. International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computingand Communication 2017 ;5(8):200 - 205.

Fernandez-Ceniceros J, Fernandez-Martinez R, Fraile-Garcia E, Martinez-de-Pison F. Decision Support Model For One-Way Floor Slab Design: A Sustainable Approach. Automation in construction 2013;35:460-470. DOI:

Obaid AH, Jaafer AA. Experimental investigation of ferrocement sandwich composite jack arch slab. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering 2022;23(7):1155-1168. DOI:

Yardim Y. Review of research on the application of ferrocement in composite precast slabs. Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering 2018;62(4):1030-1038. DOI:

Yardim Y, Waleed A, Jaafar MS, Laseima S. AAC-concrete light weight precast composite floor slab. Construction and Building materials 2013;40:405-410. DOI:

Saheed S, et al. Structural behavior of out-of-plane loaded precast lightweight EPS-foam concrete C-shaped slabs. Journal of Building Engineering 2021;33:101597. DOI:

Naaman AE. Ferrocement and thin reinforced cement composites: Four decades of progress. Journal of Ferrocement 2006;36(1):741.

Reddy Cv, Subhashini K. Lightweight Composite Ferrocement Structural Elements: A Review. International Journal For Research & Development In Technology 2018;9(5):2347-3585.

Robles A, Rp P. Ferrocement: An Innovative Technology For Housing. 1981.

Alobaidy QNA, Abdulla AI, Al-Mashaykhi M. Shear Behavior of Hollow Ferrocement Beam Reinforced by Steel and Fiberglass Meshes. Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences 2022;29(4):27-39. DOI:

Mahmood MN, Majeed SA. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Ferro-cement Slabs and Shell Roofs. Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences 2007;14(1):18-44. DOI:

Abdullah AI, Ahmad SH. Production Hollow Ferrocement Beams Through Solid Waste Recycling. Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences 2016;23(4):11-22. DOI:

Abdulla AI, Salih YA, Saleh HM. Properties of Ferrocement Slabs Containing Sawdust. Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences 2013;20(1):51-63. DOI:

Chassib SM, Resan SaF, Gejan MS, Salih MJ, Hasan AM. Developing Sustainable Lightweight Bubbled Ferrocement Slab Using Enhancing Cementitious Agents. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) 2018;9(11).

Memon NA, Sumadi SR, Ramli M. Strength And Behaviour Of Lightweight Ferrocementaerated Concrete Sandwich Blocks. Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering 2006;18(2).

Mousavi SE. Flexural Response And Crack Development Properties Of Ferrocement Panels Reinforced With Steel Fibers. Journal of Building Engineering 2017;12:325-331. DOI:

Wang S, Naaman AE, Li VC. Bending Response of Hybrid Ferrocement Plates with Meshes And Fibers. 2006. Seventh International Symposium on Ferrocement and Thin Reinforced Cement Composites National University of Singapore, June 27-29, 2001

Naser FH, Al Mamoori AHN, Dhahir MK. Effect Of Using Different Types Of Reinforcement On The Flexural Behavior Of Ferrocement Hollow Core Slabs Embedding PVC Pipes. Ain Shams Engineering Journal 2021;12(1):303-315. DOI:

Jomaa’h MM, Ahmed S, Algburi HM. Flexural Behavior Of Reinforced Concrete One-Way Slabs With Different Ratios Of Lightweight Coarse Aggregate. Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences 2018;25(4):37-45. DOI:

Resan Sa'ad F. Experimental Investigation of Aluminum-Lightweight Concrete Composite Columns. Basrah Journal for Engineering Science 2014;14(1):13-25.

ACI, Report on Ferrocement, in ACI PRC-549-18. 2018, American Concrete Institute: ACI World Headquarters, 38800 Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, MI, 48331-3439 USA.

ACI, Design Guide for Ferrocement, in ACI PRC-549.1-18. 2018, American Concrete Institute: ACI World Headquarters, 38800 Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, MI, 48331-3439 USA.

Shaaban IG, Shaheen YB, Elsayed EL, Kamal OA, Adesina PA. Flexural Characteristics Of Lightweight Ferrocement Beams With Various Types Of Core Materials And Mesh Reinforcement. Construction and Building materials 2018;171:802-816. DOI:

Shaheen YB, Eid FM, Dayer MAS. Developing of Light Weight Ferrocement Composite Plates. Publication 2020;10.

Sumadi SR, Ramli M. Development Of Lightweight Ferrocement Sandwich Panels For Modular Housing And Industrialized Building System. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Research Vote 2008(73311).

Swamy R, El-Abboud M. Application Of Ferrocement Concept To Low Cost Lightweight Concrete Sandwich Panels. Journal of Ferrocement 1988;18(3):285-292. DOI:

Shannag M, Mourad S. Flowable High Strength Cementitious Matrices For Ferrocement Applications. Construction and Building Materials 2012;36:933-939. DOI:

Akers DJ, et al. Guide for structural lightweight-aggregate concrete. ACI 213R-03 American Concrete Institute (ACI), Michigan 2003.

Bouzoubaâ N, Lachemi M. Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating High Volumes Of Class F Fly Ash: Preliminary Results. Cement and Concrete Research 2001;31(3):413-420. DOI:

Memon NA, Sumadi SR, Ramli M. Performance Of High Wokability Slag-Cement Mortar For Ferrocement. Building and Environment 2007;42(7): 2710-2717. DOI:

Okamura H. Self-Compacting High-Performance Concrete. Concrete international 1997;19(7):50-54.

Ozawa K. High-Performance Concrete Based On The Durability Design Of Concrete Structures. Proceedings of the Second East Asia-Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction 1989.

Shannag M. High Strength Concrete Containing Natural Pozzolan And Silica Fume. Cement And Concrete Composites 2000;22(6):399-406. DOI:

Shannag MJ. High Strength Ferrocement Laminates For Structural Repair. Concrete Solutions: CRC Press; 2009. pp. 399-402. DOI:

Turner M. Fast Set Foamed Concrete For Same Day Reinstatement Of Openings In Highways. Proceedings of One Day Seminar on Foamed Concrete: Properties, Applications and Latest Technological Developments: Loughborough University; 2001. pp. 12-18.

Abdulla AI, Khatab HR. Behavior Of Multilayer Composite Ferrocement Slabs With Intermediate Rubberized Cement Mortar Layer. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 2014; 39(8) :5929-5941. DOI:

Amran YM. Determination Of Structural Behavior Of Precast Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel. Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) 2016.

Kearsley E, Wainwright P. The Effect Of Porosity On The Strength Of Foamed Concrete. Cement And Concrete Research 2002;32(2):233-239. DOI:

Ramamurthy K, Nambiar EK, Ranjani GIS. A Classification Of Studies On Properties Of Foam Concrete. Cement and concrete composites 2009;31(6):388 -396. DOI:

Yue L, Bing C. New Type Of Super-Lightweight Magnesium Phosphate Cement Foamed Concrete. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 2015;27(1) :04014112. DOI:

Sika. Sika Grout-212.Sika. 2022: Available from:

ASTM International, Standard Test Method for Flow of Hydraulic Cement Mortar, C1437-15. 2015, ASTM International: 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States.

British Standards Institution, B., Methods for Determination of Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes, BS 1881-116. 1991, British Standards Institution: 389 Chiswick High Road, London, W4 4AL, UK.

ASTM International, Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars, C348-14. 2014, ASTM International: 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States.

ASTM International., Standard Test Method for Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete, C642-13. 2013, ASTM International: 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States.

ASTM International, Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading), C78/C78M-16. 2016, ASTM International: 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States.