Application of RS and GIS Techniques for Estimating the Rainfall Erosivity (R) of Harir River Basin in Kurdistan Region of Iraq KRI

Main Article Content

Mustafa Jumaah Saber mustafa.jumaah@outlook.sa
Jehan Mohammed Sheikh Suleimany jehanmohammed.sheikhsuleimany@su.edu.krd


Abstract

Geographical Information systems (GIS) has been widely utilized in engineering applications because it has been considered as a very powerful, important, strong, and necessary tool, especially in the study of soil erosion. In the present study, Remote Sensing and GIS have been utilized to determine the values and mapping the spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity (R) for the Harir River Basin. The area of study is 350.03 km2, and it is located between (36° 20' 00" N to 36° 40' 00" N) latitude and (44° 10' 00" E to 44° 30' 00" E) longitude and the elevation of Harir River Basin is ranged from 366 m to 1823 m. The digital elevation model for Harir River Basin with 30 m resolution has been used. The (IDW) method has been utilized in order to interpolate and generate the spatial distribution of the average annual rainfall stations data. The average annual rainfall data from 2000 to 2021 for five meteorological stations (Harir, Khalifan, Shaqlawa, Rawanduz and Soran) were used. The results have been demonstrated that the average annual rainfall from 2000 to 2021 for Harir River Basin is ranged from 619.013 mm to 774. 173 mm. Additionally, three equations have been utilized in order to determine the values of rainfall erosivity of Harir River Basin.  The results have been demonstrated that the average rainfall erosivity for Harir River Basin is ranged from 1528.42 (MJ.mm/ha/h/year) to 2100.00 (MJ.mm/ha/h/year). As well as the results have been demonstrated that 100% of the area of study is under class of low rainfall erosivity.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Saber, M. J. ., & Suleimany, J. M. S. . (2022). Application of RS and GIS Techniques for Estimating the Rainfall Erosivity (R) of Harir River Basin in Kurdistan Region of Iraq KRI. Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences, 29(3), 24–32. https://doi.org/10.25130/tjes.29.3.3
Section
Articles

References

REFERENCES

Gitas IZ, Douros K, Minakou C, Silleos GN, Karydas CG. Multi-temporal soil erosion risk assessment in N. Chalkidiki using a modified USLE raster model. EARSel eproceedings, 2009;8(1):40-52.

Grepperud S. Soil conservation and governmental policies in tropical areas: Does aid worsen the incentives for arresting erosion?. Agricultural Economics, 1995;12(2):129-140. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-5150(95)01139-C

Thampapillai DJ, Anderson JR. A review of the socio-economic analysis of soil degradation problems for developed and developing countries. Review of Marketing and Agricultural Economics, 1994;62(430-2016-31509):291-315.

Ashiagbor G, Forkuo EK, Laari P, Aabeyir R. Modeling soil erosion using RUSLE and GIS tools. Int J Remote Sens Geosci, 2013;2(4):1-17.

Ristić R, Kostadinov S, Radić B, Trivan G, Nikić Z. Torrential floods in Serbia–man made and natural hazards. 12th congress interpraevent; 2012. pp. 771-779. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-23-2012

Devatha C, Deshpande V, Renukaprasad M. Estimation of soil loss using USLE model for Kulhan Watershed, Chattisgarh-A case study. Aquatic Procedia, 2015;4:1429-1436. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqpro.2015.02.185

Hurni H. Land degradation, famine, and land resource scenarios in Ethiopia. World soil erosion and conservation, 1993:27-61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511735394.004

Setegn SG, Srinivasan R, Dargahi B, Melesse AM. Spatial delineation of soil erosion vulnerability in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia. Hydrological Processes: An International Journal, 2009;23(26):3738-3750. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7476

Alexandridis TK, Sotiropoulou AM, Bilas G, Karapetsas N, Silleos NG. The effects of seasonality in estimating the C‐factor of soil erosion studies. Land Degradation & Development, 2015;26(6):596-603. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2223

Singh G, Panda RK. Grid-cell based assessment of soil erosion potential for identification of critical erosion prone areas using USLE, GIS and remote sensing: A case study in the Kapgari watershed, India. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 2017;5(3):202-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2017.05.006

Wischmeier WH, Smith DD. Predicting rainfall erosion losses: A guide to conservation planning: U.S Department of Agriculture USDA, Science and Education Administration, Agriculture Handbook 537. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D. C; 1978.

Panagos P, et al. Rainfall erosivity in Europe. Science of the Total Environment, 2015;511:801-814. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.01.008

Hoyos N, Waylen PR, Jaramillo Á. Seasonal and spatial patterns of erosivity in a tropical watershed of the Colombian Andes. Journal of hydrology, 2005;314(1-4):177-191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.03.014

Meusburger K, Steel A, Panagos P, Montanarella L, Alewell C. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall erosivity factor for Switzerland. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 2012;16(1):167-177. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-167-2012

Millward A, Mersey J. Adapting the RUSLE to Model Soil Erosion Potential in a Mountainous Tropical Watershed. CATENA, 1999;38:109-129. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(99)00067-3

Wang G, Gertner G, Fang S, Anderson A. Mapping Multiple Variables for Predicting Soil Loss by Geostatistical Methods with TM Images and a Slope Map. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 2003;69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14358/PERS.69.8.889

Dabral P, Baithuri N, Pandey A. Soil erosion assessment in a hilly catchment of North Eastern India using USLE, GIS and remote sensing. Water Resources Management, 2008;22(12):1783-1798. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-008-9253-9

Fistikoglu O, Harmancioglu NB. Integration of GIS with USLE in assessment of soil erosion. Water Resources Management 2002;16(6):447-467. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022282125760

Ali SA, Hagos H. Estimation of soil erosion using USLE and GIS in Awassa Catchment, Rift valley, Central Ethiopia. Geoderma Regional 2016;7(2):159-166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geodrs.2016.03.005

Belasri A, Lakhouili A. Estimation of soil erosion risk using the universal soil loss equation (USLE) and geo-information technology in Oued El Makhazine Watershed, Morocco. Journal of Geographic Information System 2016;8(01):98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/jgis.2016.81010

Gunawan G, Sutjiningsih D, Soeryantono H, Sulistioweni S. Soil erosion estimation based on GIS and remote sensing for supporting integrated water resources conservation management. International Journal of Tecnology, 2013;4(2):157-166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v4i2.110

Parveen R, Kumar U. Integrated approach of universal soil loss equation (USLE) and geographical information system (GIS) for soil loss risk assessment in Upper South Koel Basin, Jharkhand. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/jgis.2012.46061

Trinh LH, Vu DT, Do Nhu H. Evaluation of soil erosion risk using remote sensing and GIS data (a case study: Lang Chanh district, Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam). Vestnik OrelGAU, 2015(4):57-64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15217/issn1990-3618.2015.3.57

Lo A, El-Swaify S, Dangler E, Shinshiro L. Effectiveness of EI30 as an erosivity index in Hawaii. 1985.

Stocking M, Elwell H. Vegetation and erosion: a review. Scottish Geographical Magazine, 1976;92(1):4-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00369227608736322

Wischmeier WH. A rainfall erosion index for a universal soil‐loss equation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 1959;23(3):246-249. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1959.03615995002300030027x

Renard KG, Freimund JR. Using monthly precipitation data to estimate the R-factor in the revised USLE. Journal of hydrology 1994;157(1-4):287-306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(94)90110-4

Ferro V, Giordano G, Iovino M. Isoerosivity and erosion risk map for Sicily. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 1991;36(6):549-564. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02626669109492543

Banasik K, Gôrski D. Rainfall erosivity for south-east Poland. 1994.

Yu B, Rosewell C. Technical notes: A robust estimator of the R-factor for the universal soil loss equation. Transactions of the ASAE, 1996;39(2):559-561. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.27535

Hui L, Xiaoling C, Lim KJ, Xiaobin C, Sagong M. Assessment of soil erosion and sediment yield in Liao watershed, Jiangxi Province, China, Using USLE, GIS, and RS. Journal of Earth Science 2010;21(6):941-953. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-010-0147-4

Zhang W, Fu J. Rainfall erosivity estimation under different rainfall amount. Resources science 2003;25(1):35-41.

Bonilla CA, Vidal KL. Rainfall erosivity in central Chile. Journal of Hydrology 2011;410(1-2):126-133. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.09.022

Vrieling A, Hoedjes JC, van der Velde M. Towards large-scale monitoring of soil erosion in Africa: Accounting for the dynamics of rainfall erosivity. Global and Planetary Change 2014;115:33-43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.01.009

Panagos P, Borrelli P, Meusburger K. A new European slope length and steepness factor (LS-Factor) for modeling soil erosion by water. Geosciences, 2015;5(2):117-126. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences5020117

El Jazouli A, et al. Soil erosion modeled with USLE, GIS, and remote sensing: a case study of Ikkour watershed in Middle Atlas (Morocco). Geoscience Letters, 2017;4(1):1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40562-017-0091-6

Rango A, Arnoldus H. Aménagement des bassins versants. Cahiers techniques de la FAO, 1987;36:1-11.

Pham TG, Degener J, Kappas M. Integrated universal soil loss equation (USLE) and Geographical Information System (GIS) for soil erosion estimation in A Sap basin: Central Vietnam. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 2018;6(2):99-110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2018.01.001

Nguyen T. Identify the factors effect to soil erosion and forecast soil erosion on slope land. Ph D Dissertation, Water Resources University of Vietnam (Thuyloi University), Vietnam 1996.

Tesfaye G, Debebe Y, Fikirie K. Soil erosion risk assessment using GIS based USLE model for soil and water conservation planning in Somodo watershed, south West Ethiopia. Int J Environ Agric Res, 2018;4(5):35-43.

Hurni H. Erosion-productivity-conservation systems in Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of paper presented at the 4th international conference on soil conservation, Maracay, Venezuela 1985:654-674.

KRG. Meteorological Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Kurdistan Region Government (KRG),Iraq. 2022.

Hudson N. Soil Conservation Cornell Univ. Press, New York, USA 1971.

Cooper K. Evaluation of the relationship between the RUSLE R-Factor and mean annual precipitation. Colorado State University, Fort Collins 2011.

Ferrari R, Pasqui M, Bottai L, Esposito S, Di Giuseppe E. Assessment of soil erosion estimate based on a high temporal resolution rainfall dataset. Proc 7th European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM), Utrecht, Netherlands; 2005. pp. 12-16.

da Silva AM. Rainfall erosivity map for Brazil. Catena, 2004;57(3):251-259. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2003.11.006